• FRAMEWORKS / STANDARDS

Motion and Forces

1.7 Describe Newton’s law of universal gravitation in terms of the attraction between two objects, their masses, and the distance between them.

1.8 Describe conceptually the forces involved in circular motion.

Heat and Heat Transfer

Central Concept: Heat is energy that is transferred by the processes of convection, conduction, and radiation between objects or regions that are at different temperatures.

3.1 Explain how heat energy is transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation.

3.2 Explain how heat energy will move from a higher temperature to a lower temperature until equilibrium is reached.

3.3 Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships among evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming.

3.4 Explain the relationships among temperature changes in a substance, the amount of heat transferred, the amount (mass) of the substance, and the specific heat of the substance.