Homework

  • 3-23-2020
    View the following videos as an introduction to the Unit 7; Acids, Bases and pH, including Titration  I wrote for you.
     
    This 1st shortVideo reviews the basic ideas we have been talking about with regard to the the aqueous dissociation of salts into ions. The same thing happens with acids and bases, which is why their solutions also conduct electricity. In fact, it is the behavior of the dissociated hydrogen ion H+ from an acid that gives it its acid properties. Sugar solutions do not cnduct electricity, because its molecules do not dissociate into ions; its molecules remain intact.
     
    This 2nd short video introcuces you to the concepts of acids, bases, and pH.
     
    After watching these two short videos, open and read/study the Unit 7; Acids, Bases and pH, including Titration pdf hyperlink.
    Read/study to the end of the third page. Answer the questions in Example 3 and Example 4. This should be completed by March 26. 
     

    Check your school google student email for your invitation to my new Google Classroom. It has the access code you need to use to automatically register you as a student after your 1st log-in.

    I will begin transitioning from this official Nauset teacher website to the Google Classroom associated with your school email account. 

     
    If there are any questions or confusion, email me at faucherr@nausetschools.org
     
     
     
     
    3-16-2020
    We are now beginning Unit 7: Acids & Bases.
     
    Congratulations! You are now ready to do some real chemistry, now that you have learned and practiced necessary chemistry concepts like stoichiometry and molarity.
     
    I wrote you a Study Guide for Unit 7: Acids & Bases. Instead of just reviewing what you probably already know about pH numbers, We will learn how pH numbers are actually a measure of the molar concentrations of acid ions dissolved in water. Then, when it is safe enough to go back to school, we will do an interesting experiment using a new technique and lab equipment,called a Titration. Our titration will allow us to determine the known molarity of an acid sample, HCl, by neutralizing it with an amount of NaOH of known molarity. 
     
    We are way ahead of schedule regarding the curriculum, so distance-learning during the school shut-down will only be a minor inconvenience. The chapter you will be studying at home is Unit 7; Acids, Bases and pH, including Titration. I will make a few assigned worksheets that ask probing questions to challenge you understanding, along with simple review questions to ensure retention of your understanding of the Chapter.
     
    We will not be doing any "face-time" classroom chats. But I will be at my computer during school time and will be available to answer any of your questions using our Nauset email. Mine is faucherr@nausetschools.org. By now, you know me to be efficient and professional, and I will continue to help you be the best you can be, even though it will be 100% distance-learning for a while.
     
     We are currently in "Snow Day" mode for at least the 1st 3 days of this week. So treat these days as such...enjoy the nice weather.
     
     
    3-11-2020
    Congratulations! We have just taken the test for Unit 6 on Interpreting Solubility Curves, making Molar and molal solutions, freezing point depression and boiling point elevation. I have stressed the importance of always including units with numbers to prevent needless confusion and errors.
     
    Now we are starting our study of Unit 7: Acids and Bases.
     
     
     
     
    3-6-2020
    We have wrapped-up our study of colligative properties of solutions with a lab on making icecream. The more salt added to the ice in the coffee can, the lower the freezing temperature. The lowering of  freezing point depends on the number of particles in the water preventing the water from freezing. The nature of particles is not a factor, only their number in solution, usually expressed as a molal concentration.
     
    We investigated the predicted lowering of the salty ice-water slurry by determining the molality of the salty water and then calculating the freezing point depression temperature. This was compared with the actual temperature of the salty icewater taken during the lab. Here is a worksheet for the post-lab calculations.
     
     
     
     
    2-6-2020
    you have a test next class on the interpretation of solubility curves and molarity. In case you missed class, or need more practice, here is the student worksheet, and here are the answers.
     
     
     
     
     
    2-3-2020
    If you did not do well on your midyear exam and want to learn from your mistakes, you can schedule a time to go over it with me some morning before school starts. I am often in my classroom by 8 am.
     
    Unit 6 Solutions
    In this lab, we added a specific amount of potassium nitrate to a test tube, and then added 5 mL of water. Each team had a different amount of potassium nitrate. Then the test tubes were placed in a hot -water bath to help dissolve all of the solute. When the test tube was removed from the hot-water bath, the solution began to cool until a temperature was reached at the point the solute began to crystallize (un-dissolve). This represented the maximum temperature that the assigned amount of solute could dissolve in 5 mL of water. Class data was pooled and graphed to obtain a solubility curve.
     
    A solubility curve indicates the maximum amount of a particular solute that can dissolve in 100 grams of water for a range of temperatures.
     
     
     
     
    1-24-2020
    Here is an 8 minute video on How To Study. If you are not getting an A, you can easily learn how to get one AND actually remember what you learned so that you can apply your knowledge later on, especially in college.
     
     
    1-13-2020
     
    Your last test for this quarter will be this week, Wed for B Day, Thurs for A Day.
     
    Topics for the test: We have been emphasizing developing our skills on analyzing lab data using stoichiometry to balance the reaction equation, calculation the theoretical yield of product, and calculating the percent yield of the reaction. You also need to know how to make a molar solution...It's as easy as 1-2-3! If you still have difficulty with this, and you did not complete the worksheet/lab calculations that we have been practicing, get some help from someone immediately. These types of calculations are important for success in chemistry and college-level courses. 
     
    Reminder: Cellphones are not allowed during tests, or the exam. If you have a calculator, know how to use it. If you need a calculator, Ocean State Job Lot in Chatham sells scientific calculators for only $4.
     
     
     
    1-6-20

    What are we doing right now and why is it important?

    We have been practicing the idea that we can determine the exact formula of a chemical compound by taking the lab masses of its elements and finding their mole ratio.

    We are also working on the idea that we can balance a chemical equation for a reaction by taking the lab masses of the chemicals involved and finding their mole ratios.

    Finally we are learning how to do the reverse... Looking at the mole ratios of a balanced chemical equation for a reaction and realizing that the mole ratios of the chemicals involved can be used to predict the amount in grams of the chemicals taking part in the reaction! This has tremendous value if you are a chemist and are trying to figure out how much of a chemical reactant you need to produce a specific target amount of product you are trying to make!

    Lab 4-4 Mole Relationships in a Chemical Reaction (Silver Lab)   helps us connect these theoretical concepts to reality!

    It’s hard to believe that we are already about to pass the halfway mark in this course with only one semester left. The critical thinking and analytical skills you are developing in this class are preparing you very well for college and career. This is a deep kind of learning that will help you have a future that you deserve!

     

     
     
    1-2-20
    Today, I distributed the studyguide you will need to thoroughly study and prepare for the mid-year exam.
     
    I also revisited the mole concept as it applies to Avogadro's number. We did a worksheet to practice doing problems with Avogadro's number.
     
    We have an exciting lab this week to demonstrate a single-displacement reaction: Making silver! This lab will also demonstate the predictive capacity of the Activity Series Chart, along with the electron transfer involved in the formation of Cu ions in the chemical reaction.
     
    Another lab next week to demonstrate a double-displacement reaction and to thoroughly review stoichiometric concepts and calculations involving percent yield.
     
     
     
    12-12-19
    Today I introduced you to the concept of Molarity to express the concentration of solutions in the laboratory. I had you complete the Molarity Worksheet and then prepare a solution of particular molar concentration in the laboratory.
     
    Test next class on Stoichiometry and Molarity. I will provide the Periodic Table. You provide the calculator (no cell phones). I want you do demonstrate what you can do on your own. Make sure you thoroughly understand these 2 worksheets that we have been working on:
     
     
     
    12-6-19
    This is what we did in class recently. If you missed this stoichiometry worksheet, make sure you do it and understand it.
     
    12-5-19
    We are strengthening our understanding of stoichiometry. Make sure you know how to set up situation circles on a balanced chemical equation. This provides you with an imortant game plan reference for the needed stoichiometric calculations.
     
     
     
    11-26-19
    We did another synthesis reaction (Lab 4-2) to investigate the mole relationships among the reactant sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda)and the decomposition reaction products, carbon dioxide and water. This will strengthen our understanding of molar mass and the mole concept, and how these ideas can be used to verify experimentally whether a chemical reaction equation has been correctly balanced with the correct coefficients.
     
     We also finished reviewing the concepts of molar mass and converting grams of substances to moles of them to obtain mole ratios needed to write chemical formulas and balance chemical equations with this worksheet/quiz.
     
     
     
    11-21-19
    We did a lab on the third method we discussed on separating a component from a mixture. When you have a solution (mixture) of two liquids dissolved in each other, their differences in boiling point (if wide enough) can be used to separate them by heating. In our lab, ethanol was separated from a mixture of ethanol in water by this method. Then we calculated the percentage of the ethanol that was in the original sample misture.  During the distillation of the mixture, new lab skills were acquired.
     
     
     
    11-13-19
    We have been exploring various means of separating homogeneous mixtures of substances:
     
    1. We have separated salt from a saltwater solution to determine the percentage of salt in that saltwater solution. A weighed sample of the saltwater solution was boiled until only the dry salt remained. After weighing the dry salt, we were able to calculate the mass percetage of salt in that saltwater solution to be about 17% salt. The laboratory technique practiced was how to gently boil a solution in a  ceramic evaporating dish with a watch glass cover to retain any spattered salt.
     
    2. We have separated salt from a dry salt & sand mixture knowing that salt dissolves in water (soluble), but sand does not (insoluble). We squirted some water into a weighed sample of the mixture on a weighed filter paper in a funnel to dissolve and pass the saltwater through the filter paper, collected a a filtrate in the beaker below. After a few more squirts of water to make sure any wetness remaining was just water, and not saltwater, we allowed the sand residue on the filter paper to dry so that we could later find the weight of the dry salt. Then we found the percentage by mass of the salt component in the original sand-salt mixture.
     
     
    10-29-19
    To follow up on my lecture on Periodic Trends, we will do a "lab" on how the following aspects of each element trend with increasing Atomic Number: Atomic Radius, Valence (outer) Electrons, and Electronegativity.
     
    Here is a document listing the element aspects needed for the "lab"
     
     
     
     
    10-17-19
    We have been using our lab data masses to find the correct mole ratio to write the chemical formula for the magnesium oxide compound that we created. The criss-cross method agrees with this lab determination. We are also realating the mole ratios of the reactants and products to write mole ratio coefficients that enable us to balance the chemical equation for the reaction we carried out. This agrees with the idea that atoms are not created or destroyed in a normal chemical reaction.
     
    We are also beginning our study of 4 Periodic Trends associated with the Periodic Table of the Elements: Atomic Size, Metallic Character, Ionization Energy, Electronegativity
     
     
     
    10-11-19 Friday  A-4 Chem
    In this lesson, students are given real-life examples of the conservation of mass and the conservation of energy in a video presentation. In a closed chemical system, atoms are not lost or gained; they simply re-arrange, and mass remains the same. When energy is lost by an athlete, it must be replenished to balance the amount of energy lost!
     
    If you are absent today, please do this assignment at home.
     
    Ring of Truth: Change Video for A-4 Chem class.
     

    Write your reflections (thoughts) during or after the viewing. Tthis is a good time to practice your best grammar and handwriting skills.

    Video Reflection Worksheet

     

     
     
     
    10-10-19
    Taking the mole concept 1 step farther, we can now use experimentally-determined mole ratios to balance chemical equations. We will practice this new idea with the worksheet Stoichiometry; Using mole Ratios to Balance Chemical equations. This will help us determine the correct, balanced chemical equation for the oxidation of magnesium to produce magnesium oxide., (Lab 3-2). As extra practice, we can consider
    worksheet for the side reaction that occurred when magnesium reacted with nitrogen to make magnesium nitride.
     
     
     
    10-8-19
    Lab 3-2 data analysis: Using the masses obtained last class to calculate the percentage by mass of each element making up magnesium oxide.
    Use the experimentally-determined mole ratios of Mg and O to write the formula for magnesium oxide. Then compare with the criss-cross method to determine its validity.
     
     
     
    10-4-19
    Lab 3-2 Synthesis & Composition of a Compound: Heating Mg in a Crucible to Make Magnesium Oxide. Today was experiment day. We made sure we obtained data for Table II Rows 1 through 4. Next class, we will use this data to calculate the percentage composition of Mg and O atoms in the magnesium oxide product.
     
     
     
     
     
    9-30-19
    Lecture Topic: How to calculate the percentage, by mass, of each element in a chemical compound. Lab Activity: What is the mass percentage of an element in a compound? Adding up the percentage masses for each element in a compound should give a result of 100 %. Mass percentage of something in a bigger thing is the mass of the smaller thing divided by the mass of the bigger thing times 100.
     
     
     
     
     
    9-27-19 
    After finishing and going over our Ch 2 Test (Unit 1), we had time to go over our understanding of the relationships between Proton, Neutron, Electron, Mass Number, Atomic Number by doing the Fill-In Chart Worksheet.
     
     
     
     
    9-24-19
    Today, we continued to explore what kind of informatioin we can obtain from chemical formulas and the Periodic Table, by watching the Cardulla Video Lesson 8 on Chemical Formulas and ions and the Periodic Table. Lesson 8 Video Notes were provided for your study. A WS for L8 and an answer form were also provided.
      
    Pay particular attention to the definitions of some new terms: Crystal Lattice Network for ionic solids like NaCl, and atomic mass unit (amu), which is associated with relative atomic weights. 
     
    Test next class.
     
     
     
     
    9-23-19
    Review for your first test with this Test- Readiness Review Sheet.
    The test will have about 30 multiple choice questions. I will provide a table of the elements and a reference for ion charges.
     
     
     
    9-19-19
    Re-writing the word equations of the copper cycle into chemical formula equations (to help us practice the criss-cross method and to help us remeber the copper cycle reactions).
     
    Introduction to the Periodic Table of the Elements. Families (Vertical Groups) of elements have similar properties. Alkali Metals, like sodium and potassium,  in Group 1A are very reactive.
    Demo: Proving, with a few drops of indicator, that alkali metals reacting with water produce alkaline solutions.
     
     
     
    9-17-19 (A Day)
    Today we explored the Copper Cycle Demo and realized that elements and their atoms (like copper) cannot be destroyed or converted to other elements (like gold!) by normal chemical reactions, even by asaulting them with harsh acids and bases! We completed a data table of observations for the copper cycle demo. I demonstrated the process of decanting a liquid.
    After checking our answers on the criss-cross worksheet, we went to the lab table to actually see what these chemicals look like in their solid and aqueous (dissolved in water) forms.
     
    More videos of the copper cycle:
     
     
     
     
     9-13-19 (A Day)
    We also finished the writing formulas using ion squares activity. Finally, I showed you an easier and faster way to write chemical formulas using the Criss-Cross Method. (Skip question 14.)
    We discussed the significance of listing elements that share similar reactivities in vertical groups, called families. We also noticed that all the elements in Group 1A have ions with a 1+ charge, and all the elements in Group 2A have ions with a 2+ charge. This makes sense: Since all elements in a group tend to react similarly, we are not surprised if they also share the same ionic charge.
    Group 1A metals are very reactive: Video Demo of K recting with water.
    An introduction to the chemical elements is given by Carl Saganin the Video: Lives of the Stars. (1st 30 minutes)
     
     
    The worksheets on formula writing remind us that every chemical compound has a chemical formula that explicitly shows the exact combining ratios of the different atoms making up each molecule. A different ratio would represent a different molecule.
     
     
    9-11-19 A-4
    Today we talked about the contributions of early alchemists to the modern science of chemistry. We reviewd lab safety and learned the names of common lab equipment. We talked about Intesive Properties like density, and how they can help us identify a substance. We came up with a good definition for MATTER. We practiced using a meter stick to find the volume of a rectangular metal slab. We also used the water displacement method with a graduated cylinder. We also used the electronic balance to find the mass of the slab in grams. Then we calculated the slab's density so that we could identify what metal it was. A calculation was performed to find the percent error or our experimetally-determined densities.
     
     
    9-9-19  A-4
    Today , in Lesson 5, we observed the chemical reaction of a penny turning into a silver-colored coin, and then into a "golden-colored" coin. We learned about using INTENSIVE PROPERTIES like density to help identify a pure substance like copper. We came up with a good definition for MATTER. We also learned how to set up a conversion to change pounds to kiligrams
     
     
     
    9-5-19  A-4 
     
    Today we discussed lab safety, the importance of not bringing food into the classroom, and how to work with a Bunsen burner to bend glass tubing.
    We also practiced a pretend fire drill to make sure we know where to meet during an actual fire drill.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    6-3-19
    We did our lab calculations for the Molar Volume of a Gas Lab. We then reviewed Unit 9 Gases to prepare for our test next class. The test will also include a couple of other topics we have studied...How to make a molar solution (Easy as 1-2-3!) and stoichiometry.
     
    ROOM CHANGES DURING MCAS
     
    Tuesday
     
    A1 Chemistry goes to Mr. Donovan in Room A106. He will give you the test. Bring your calculator.
     
    A2 Chemistry goes to Ms. Bohannon in Room A102. She will give you the test. Bring your calculator.
     
    Wednesday
     
    B1 Chemistry goes to Mr. McNamara in Room A205. He will give you the test. Bring your calculator.
     
     
    5-31-19
    Today, we are reviewing for our test on Unit 9 Gas Laws. This test will be given on Next Tues and Wed, during MCAS with your sub. Bring a calculator and a pencil. I will post the room assignment for you as soon as I get it. My classroom will be used for MCAS testing, so you will be going elsewhere on those days.
     
     
     
     
    5-29-19
    Today we did an experiment to determine the molar volume of a gas. We wanted to prove to ourselves that the molar volume of a gas at STP really is 22.4L/mole. This also gave us an opportunity to begin reviewing stoichiometry in preparation for the final exam. It also gave us a reason to apply the combined gas law.
     
     
     
    5-24-19
    Today we discussed Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures, which states that the total contributing pressures of the gases within a gas-collection tube (eudiometer) are equal to the outside atmospheric (barometric) pressure. Then we did a worksheet to practice our understanding of this concept.
     
     
     
    5-22-19
    Today we discussed the chemistry concepts behind the Graham's Law of Diffusion experiment. We reviewed and applied the KE equation you learned in Freshman Physics. Then we realized that the ammonia gas molecules had to travel faster than the HCl molecules in the diffusion tube. This explains why the reaction ring of ammonium chloride product did NOT occur in the middle of the tube, but occured on the acid end. Then we did a worksheet to practice our understanding of this concept.
     
     
     
    5-17-19
    We are now exploring the behavior of gas molecules in Unit 9. There are 3 Gas Laws that help us determine the effects of P,V, and T on gas samples. We are also learning that gas molecules with small masses move faster that those having heavier masses at the same temperature, in accordance with the KE equation you learned about in Freshman Physics.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    5-2-19

    Test-Readiness Checklist

     
    Test on Unit 8: Nuclear Reactions on the 1st class we meet next week.
     
     
     
     
     
    5-1-10
    We have finished Unit 8 Nuclear Reactions, and are now ready for our test. Study the wording and concepts of your practice test to prepare for the real one.
    But, first, we will do one more lab that will help us better-understand the concept of half-life as it applies to the radioactive decay of a sample of a radioactive isotooe. 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    4-24-19
    We have already started Unit 8: Nuclear Reactions. These reactions are not the normal chemical reactions chemists deal ordinarilly with. They involve transformations of atoms into other DIFFERENT kinds of atoms!
     
     
     
     
     
    4-1-19
    We are now beginning Unit 7: Acids & Bases.
     
    Congratulations! You are now ready to do some real chemistry, now that you have learned and practiced necessary chemistry concepts like stoichiometry and molarity.
     
    I wrote you a Study Guide for Unit 7: Acids & Bases. Instead of just reviewing what you probably already know about pH numbers, We will learn how pH numbers are actually a measure of the molar concentrations of acid ions dissolved in water. Then we will do an interesting experiment using a new technique and lab equipment,called a Titration. Our titration will allow us to determine the unknown molarity of an acid sample, HCl, by neutralizing it with an amount of NaOH of known molarity. 
     
     
     
     
    3-19-19
    We have just taken the test for Unit 6 on Interpreting Solubility Curves, making Molar and molal solutions, freezing point depression and boiling point elevation. I have stressed the importance of always including units with numbers to prevent needless confusion and errors.
     
    Now we are starting our study of Unit 7: Acids and Bases.
     
     
     
     
    3-20-19
    We are now ready to explore one more consequence of particles dissolved in water and interfering with something: The Boiling Point Elevation of Water, which increases with increasing particles dissolved in it. Then, soon, we'll have a test on Unit 6: Solutions & Colligative Properties.
     
     
     
     
    3-15-19   B1
    Today, we did the Icecream Lab, an application of the colligative properties of salt ions on the freezing-pount depression of water. The second part of the lab will be to experimentally determine the molality of the salt-water slurry you made, and to see if your freezing-point depression calculation for that slurry matches the actual freezing-point depression thermometer reading you recorded today.
     
     
     
     
    4-11-19
    We practiced the math needed to determine the number of grams needed to add to a given mass of water to make a molal solution of a desired concentration. Then we actually made those solutions in the lab to gain needed lab skills. We also used the freezing-point depression equation (obtained from the slope of a T/m graph) to calculate the temperatures these solutions would freeze. 
     
     
     
     
    3-5-19   B-Day
    Test on Unit 6: Molarity and Solubility Curves
     
    Lecture on Colligative properties and molality.
    Today, we discussed whether or not we could "salt" the roads with sugar and how all this related to a future lab: Making Icecream.
    I emphasized how freezing-point depression depends on the NUMBER of particles in solution that interfere with the freezing of water. The NATURE of these particles is irrelevant when dealing with colligative properties.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    2-28-19
    Today we reviewed the concepts of solubility and molarity to prepare for our test we have next class on these 2 Unit 8 topics. You need to know what molarity is and how to prepare Molar solutions of desired concentrations for a given volumetric flask size. You also need to know how to interpret solubility curves. Solubility curves tell you how much of a certain chemical you can dissolve in 100 grams of water until it is saturated and can't hold any more of that solute. If you add more than the saturation amount, the extra solute will not dissolve and will remain undissiolved on the bottom of the beaker.
     
     
    Coming up next, we will discuss the limitations of Molarity and the need to use a similar, but different, way of expressing solution concentrations called molality.
     
     
     
     
    2-26-18
    Today we reviewed the concept of MOLARITY so that we could prepare some chemical solutiions of desired concentrations in the volumetric flask provided of a certain size. We reviewed the 3 easy steps to do the calculations for this.
     
     
     
     
     
    2-15-19
    Today we explored the concept of molarity and how we can use this idea to express the concentration of a dissolved solute in an aqueous solution. We learned how volumetric flasks are useful in preparing molar solutions of a specific desired concentration of moles of solute per liter of solution. It's as easy as 1-2-3!
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    2-13-19
     
     
     
     
    2-11-19
    Unit 6 Solutions
    Lab Investigation: The Solubility Curve for Potassium Nitrate
    In this lab, we added a specific amount of potassium nitrate to a test tube, and then added 5 mL of water. Each team had a different amount of potassium nitrate. Then the test tubes were placed in a hot -water bath to help dissolve all of the solute. When the test tube was removed from the hot-water bath, the solution began to cool until a temperature was reached at the point the solute began to crystallize (un-dissolve). This represented the maximum temperature that the assigned amount of solute could dissolve in 5 mL of water. Class data was pooled and graphed to obtain a solubility curve.
     
    A solubility curve indicates the maximum amount of a particular solute that can dissolve in 100 grams of water for a range of temperatures.
     
     
     
     
    1-15-19  A-Day
    We started off with a quiz on Silver Lab Stoichiometry.
    Then we practiced our concepts and definitions for Units 1-4 with a puzzle Units 1-4.
    Thenwe reviewed the writing of chemical formulas with a quiz on the CrissCross Method.
     
     
     
    1-11-19  A-Day
    Here are some of the crossword puzzles we've been working on to review for the 4 curricular units of study covered on the mid-year exam:
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    1-8-19  B-Day
    For those of you who were absent and missed our exciting lab on making silver, here is Lab 4-4 Mole Relationships in a Chemical Reaction. It has sample data you can use as yours when we analyze our lab data next class, using stoichiometry to calculate the percent yield of the silver we made.
     
     
     
     
    1-7-19  A-Day
     
    Today we were introduced to the concept of the Activity Series, a list of which metals can replace at certain metallic ion in a chemical compound. For example, we can see that Cu can replace the Ag in the silver nitrate compound. This is exactly what will happen in Lab 4-4 Mole Relationships (Silver Lab).
     
    On the activity series chart, anything higher on the list than the one below will result in the metal ion below being replaced by the one atom above it. Zn will replace Cu. Cu will replace Ag. But Au will not replace Ag. Ag will not replace Zn.
     
    We have been very productive and efficient in tackling and mastering the learning standards in all 4 Units of study listed in the Chemistry Curriculum. So now it is time to review what we've done and put it into perspective to prepare for the Mid-Year Exam.
     
    If you have been falling behind, for whatever reason, you still have a full 3 weeks to to see me for help and get your act together, and still be able to ace the exam. The rest of us have done our part in the classroom, so your success on the exam is now totally up to you.
     
     
     
     
    1-3-19  A-Day
    Today we reviewed Unit 1 Atoms & Their Parts by doing a crosswword puzzle related to the Unit 1 content of the Mid-Year Exam Readiness Checklist Study Packet.
    Then we re-did an old quiz on stoichiometry to see if we needed a tune-up with stoichiometry concepts and applications.
    Next Class,we will be reviewing Unit 2 Properties of matter.
     
     
     
     
    12-21-18  B-Day
    Today we performed an experiment that used boiling point differenced to separate two homogeneous liquids, an alcohol (ethanol) and water. Since ethanol boils at around 80°, it will boil off first and can be collected as a gas and condensed back into a liquid if we put ice around the collecting tube of ethanol condensate. Only after all of the ethanol has been boiled off (and collected) at 80°C will the temperature begin to rise higher to the boiling point of water. As a STEM activity, we used the computer and a temperature sensor probe to electronically capture and record the temperature of the alcohol/water mixture. In real time, the computer automatically graphed the progress of the temperatures taken every 30 seconds so that we can interpret the graph while heating the mixture.
     
     
     
     
     
    12-14-18  A-Day
    Today we learned that we can used stoichiometry to calculate the number of molecules of a chemical product that we can expect to produce in a chemical reaction if we know the number of grams we had for one of the reactants. For example, in the Baking Soda lab, knowing the number of grams of sodium hydrogen carbonate we start with, we can not only predict the amount , in grams, of NaCl that should be produced....We can actually predict the number of molecules (formula units) of NaCl we can expect to produce!
     
    Then we had a great start on the take-home test on moles and how many things a mole represents. Here is the answer sheet for your work. This test is due nect class (Tues). Skip Questions 1, 6, 9. (The first page is just notes.) If you were absent, you are still expected to hand in your take-home test on Tues for A-1 and A-2 classes.
     
    We also reviewed the concept of using solubility differences in the separation salt from sand (a heterogeneous mixture) using filtration. Then I discussed the exciting lab we will do next week: The separation of alcohol dissolved in water (a homogeneous mixture) using boiling point differences.
     
     
     
     
    12-12-18
    Today you had a sub because I had to attend a workshop. The sub showed an interesting chemistry video called Explosive Science.
    After watching the video, complete the Video Reflection Sheet, containing question prompts that encourage you to think about how your knowledge or opinions may have changed as a ressult of the viewing. Use your best grammar and spelling in your responses. Don't forget to Capitalize the first word of a sentence and place a period at the end of the sentence.
     
     
     
    12-10-18
    We have been talking about how to separate a heterogeneous mixture of salt and sand, based on the physical poroperty of solubility. Adding water to the mixture and filtering will result in the sand remaining as residue on the filter paper, while the saltwater solution will go through the filter paper into the receiving vessel. Then the saltwater filtrate can be heated to drive off the water, leaving behind the separated salt component of the mixture.
     
    Having weighed the mixture, and then the separated salt, we can determine the percent composition of the salt (by mass) in the original mixture.
     
     
     
     
     
    12-5-18
    Today, we spent some time reflecting on what a mole of a chemical actually looks like. We weighed out a mole of each of some chemical samples and elements and displayed their relative amounts for us to realize that 1 mole of something has the same number of things, but they have different masses and volumes.
     
     
     
     
    11-30-18  A-Day
    Some of you were late in handing in your lab reports today, so it took time away from going over today's quiz. Here is today's quiz with answers so that you can study it and see where you made mistakes, to prepare for the test next class. Make sure you also review the rules for determining significant digits (figures).
     
     
     
     
    11-29-18 B-Day
    Quiz on interpreting lab data, including stoichiometric calculations and determination of the percent yield of a product.
     
    This quiz helped you assess your readiness for your test next class (A-Day Tues 12-4-18   B-Day Mon 12-3-18). This test assesses interpreting and applying lab data, including stoichiometric calculations and determination of the percent yield of a product.
     
    Here is today's quiz with answers so that you can study it and see where you made mistakes, to prepare for the test next class. Some of you were late in handing in your lab reports today, so it took time away from going over today's quiz. Make sure you also review the rules for determining significant digits (figures).
     
     
     
     
    11-19-18 A-Day
     
    Time to practice using stoichiometry as we predict the mass (yield) of a product in a chemical reaction and compare it to the actual experimentally-obtained mass. This comparison of an experimentally-obtained mass with the expected mass(calculated using stoichiometry) is called the percent yield.
     
     
     
     
     
    11-15-18  A-Day
     
     
    Now that we have reviewed stoichiometry calculations and know how to express the answer using the correct number of significant digits, it is time to demonstrate what you know by doing a take-home stoichiometry project worth a test grade. We started today and will finish next class (before the Thanksgiving break). It is very important that you practice good working habits by showing all the steps I taught you when solving stoichiometry problems. This stoichiometry test assignment will give you the practice and confidence you need for our next test on interpreting and applying stoichiometric relationships between different chemicals involved in a chemical reaction.
     
     
    11-13-18  A-Day
     
    We had more stoichiometry practice, calculating the mass of a chemical product from a given mass of reactant.
     
     
     
     
    Then we learned the rules for determining the correct number of significant digits in a given number. Next class, we will apply the rules of significant digits as we decide how many sig digs our answer should have in a stoichiometry problem.
     

    Significant Digits worksheet

     
     
     
    11-6-18
    We did another synthesis reaction (Lab 4-2) to investigate the mole relationships among the reactant sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda)and the products, carbon dioxide and water. TRhis will strengthen our understanding of molar mass and the mole concept, and how these ideas can be used to verify experimentally whether a chemical reaction equation has been correctly balanced with the correct coefficients.
     
     
     
     
    11-2-18
    We did a computer graphing activity for a visual understanding of how atomic size, number of valence electrons, and electronegativity periodically relate to increasing atomic number. 
     
     
     
     
    10-29-18
    A-1 Block: We went over the Test-Readiness Objectives review sheet topics.  Test 10-31-18
    B-1Block: We will go over the Test- Readiness Objectives review sheet topics. Test 11-1-18
     
     
     
     
    10-26-18
    We finished discussing Lab 11-1 Decomposition of a Hydrate. We determined the mole ratio between barium chloride and water in the barium chloride hydrate. By knowing the mass relationships between the two, we used their molar mass relationships as conversion factors to convert to mole ratios for comparison. 
     
    We also reviewed the definitions of ionization energy, electronegativity, ionic radius, and metallic character. After, we reviewed the direction of their increasing trends along the horizontal rows and vertical groups on the periodic table.
     
    We will have a test soon and I will choose questions from these Test-Readiness Learning Objectives.
     
    As an additional review for you, I am providing a pre-highlighted review sheet on Periodic Trends. The highlighted regions are the ones to study.
     
     
     
     
    10-18-18
    Demo: Evaporated solutions of salts leave behind crystals of certain geometrical shapes.
     
    Lecture and worksheet: Using Lab 3-2 Data to Balance a Chemical Equation by determining the number of moles obtained by the mass measurements and calculating the mole ratios for the chemicals involved.
     
     
     
     
     
     
    10-16-18  B-Day
    Finished the Follow-Up Questions of Lab 3-2 Synthesis & Composition of a Compound MgO. Then collected.
    Went over the worksheet Lab 9-1 Significance and Use of the Periodic table. Then collected.
     
     
     
     
    10-12-18 B-Day    10-15-18  A-Day
     
     In this new lesson, students will learn and apply the definitions of the following terms: Non-metallic character (tendency for an element to behave less like a metal and more like a non-metal), Atomic Radius (the size of an atom), Ionization Energy (how much energy it takes to remove an outer electron from an atom), Electronegativity (an atom’s strength of desire for another element’s electrons, also known as electron affinity).

    The big idea behind today’s lesson is that there are trends for each of these 4 characteristics as you move horizontally and vertically along the Periodic Table of the elements (i.e, there is an increase in the specific characteristic in one direction or another).

    Students already have been given the following handouts:

    Lab 9-1 Significance and Use of the Periodic table

    Lesson 18 Life on the Edge; Valence and Core Electrons

    Either during, or after the video viewings, students are to fill-in Chart II in the Lab 9-1 packet. They must draw an arrowhead at the end of each line to indicate the direction of each trend (characteristic) indicated. This must be done for the horizontal and vertical trends.

     
     
     
     
     Video 5
     
     
     
    Ring of Truth: Change Video for B1 Rotating class.
     
     
     
     
    10-9-18 A-Day
    Lab data analysis: Using the masses obtained last class to calculate the percentage by mass of each element making up magnesium oxide.
     
     
     
    10-4-18 A-Day
    Lab 3-2 Synthesis & Composition of a Compound: Heating Mg in a Crucible to Make Magnesium Oxide. Today was experiment day. We made sure we obtained data for Table II Rows 1 through 4. Next class, we will use this data to calculate the percentage composition of Mg and O atoms in the magnesium oxide product.
     
     
     
    10-2-18 A-Day
    Lecture Topic: How to calculate the percentage, by mass, of each element in a chemical compound. Lab Activity: What is the mass percentage of an element in a compound? Adding up the percentage masses for each element in a compound should give a result of 100 %. Mass percentage of something in a bigger thing is the mass of the smaller thing divided by the mass of the bigger thing times 100.
     
     
     
    10-1-18  A Day
    After finishing and going over our Ch 2 Test, we had time to go over our understanding of the relationships between Proton, Neutron, Electron, Mass Number, Atomic Number by doing the Fill-In Chart Worksheet. The A-2 Class will finish this chart for homework, due tomorrow during rotating. B-1 Class will do the chart worksheet in class tomorrow.
     
     
     
    9-25-18  B Day   9-26-18  A Day
    Today, we continued to explore what kind of informatioin we can obtain from chemical formulas and the Periodic Table, by watching the Cardulla Video Lesson 8 on Chemical Formulas and ions and the Periodic Table. Lesson 8 Video Notes were provided for your study. A WS for L8 and an answer form were also provided.
     
     
    B1, A1 and A2 Homework is to finish the WS for L8 that we started in class. 
     
    Pay particular attention to the definitions of some new terms: Crystal Lattice Network for ionic solids like NaCl, atomic mass unit (amu). 
     
     
     
     
     
    9-21-18
    Introduction to the Periodic Table of the Elements. Families (Vertical Groups) of elements have similar properties. Alkali Metals, like sodium and potassium,  in Group 1A are very reactive.
     
     
     
     
     
     
    9-18-18 (A Day)
    Today we finished the Copper Cycle Demo and realized that elements and their atoms (like copper) cannot be destroyed or converted to other elements (like gold!) by normal chemical reactions, even by asaulting them with harsh acids and bases! We completed a data table of observations for the copper cycle demo. I demonstrated the process of decanting a liquid.
    We also finished the writing formulas using ion squares activity. Finally, I showed you an easier and faster way to write chemical formulas using the Criss-Cross Method.
    Homework for the A-2 class is to do numbers 1 through 6 (first page) on the Criss-Cross Worksheet.
    The worksheets on formula writing remind us that every chemical compound has a chemical formula that explicitly shows the exact combining ratios of the different atoms making up each molecule. A different ratio would represent a different molecule.
     
     
     
    9-10-18
    Today we talked about the contributions of early alchemists to the modern science of chemistry. We reviewd lab safety and learned the names of common lab equipment. We talked about Intesive Properties like density, and how they can help us identify a substance. We came up with a good definition for MATTER. We practiced using a meter stick to find the volume of a rectangular metal slab. We also used the water displacement method with a graduated cylinder. We also used the electronic balance to find the mass of the slab in grams. Then we calculated the slab's density so that we could identify what metal it was. A calculation was performed to find the percent error or our experimetally-determined densities.  Lecture Slides Ch1 Lessons 1-5
     
     
    9-6-18
     
    Today we discussed lab safety, the importance of not bringing food into the classroom, and how to work with a Bunsen burner to bend glass tubing. I also gave you the password to access the Resources for Students & Parents subpage.
     
     
     
    9-12-18
     
    Today , in Lesson 5, we observed the reaction of a penny turning into a silver-colored coin, and then into a "golden-colored" coin. We learned about using INTENSIVE PROPERTIES like density to help identify a pure substance like copper. We came up with a good definition for MATTER. We also learned how to set up a conversion to change pounds to kiligrams.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    6-5-18  B2
    We just did the ice cream lab, demonstrating the freezing-point depression of the salt mixed in with the ice to freeze the cream. I saved 100 mL of someone's saltwater slurry so that I could boil off the water and determine its molality from the mass of the remaining salt. You can also determine the molality of the saltwater slurry by solving for m in the freezing point equation, since you already took a temperature reading from the slurry in the coffee can when you finished shaking.
     
    The A4 Junior Final Exam is Tuesday June 19.
    The B2 Junior Final Exam is Wed June 20.
     
    You are expected to attend the Junior Final Exam.
     
    Your Junior Final Exam grade will be averaged with the grade on your Senior final exam only if it is lower.
    If your Junior Final Exam grade is higher than your Senior one (and I expect that it should be!), I will just use that new higher grade.
    If you are a no-show on Junior Exam Day and Make-Up Day (Thursday 6/21), I will automatically give you a 60 and average it with your Senior exam grade.
     
    B2 Chem students will report to Ms. Yates English classroom A112. She is your sub while I administer an MCAS. She has the worksheet that I want you to do. You can help each other and I will count it for a grade. Everything we do now is for exam review and preparation. We have done a great job learning many important concepts this year!
     
    5-21-18
    We are now finishing our last unit on Colligative Properties. The idea behind colligative properties is that properties like freezing pouint depression do not depend on the identity of the chemicals involved, only on the number of particles they release when dissolved. Here is my Powerpoint presentaion on Colligative Properties. We also made the important disctinction between molarity and molality. Since molality does not depend on the volume of solvent, only its mass, solvent contraction and expansion changes, occuring with molarity under harsh temperature changes, do not affect molality.
     
    All of my students will take the final exam with Seniors next week. Juniors will also have a chance to improve their final exam score on the actual Junior final exam day. (I can average the two final exams.) Your final exam score will be averaged with your 1st semester exam for a grade that will count as 20% of your chemistry course grade.
     
    I have worked hard to prepare for you a Final Exam Study Guide. This 14-page guide lists and explains the 11 major topics and concepts of the upcoming exam, including solved examples and important tips. Go through it very carefully to target any areas you need to address before the exam. It will also give you more confidence and take away the worry of not knowing what to study.
     
    Additionally, the following short videos by Tyler DeWitt offer information and insight into some important concepts in case you missed them in class or need more review:
     
     
    5-10-18 B-Day
    Test on Gas Laws, Gas behavior, Combined Gas Law, Dalton's law of Partial Pressures, Molarity, polar vs.nonpolar molecules.
    For your review, here is my Powerpoint Lecture on Gases.
    For review, you should also do the 1st question in the WS that reviews Gas Law Stoichiometry: WS on stoichiometry & molar volume.
    Here is the complete solution to the Stoichiometry & Molar Volume WS. Read that whole 1st page very carefully.
     
     
    5-8-17 B-Day
    We'll take advantage of our double meeting time today by doing the Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas lab during B-2 and calculating the results after lunch. Quiz on Thursday. Test next Monday.
     
     
    5-7-18  A Day
    Quiz on the Combined Gas Law & Dalton's law of partial Pressures. Then, we finished the needed calculations to complete and hand in our official lab report. If you missed the lab you will need sample student data, in order to complete the lab report and apply the concepts.
     
    Test on Gas Laws, Polar Molecules, and Molar Volume at STP Friday (5-11-18) If you understand the lab, this Wednesday's WS on stoichiometry & molar volume (Do only the 1st Question.), and the Gas Laws Lecture Worksheet, you will be prepared.
     
    B-2 Chemistry will perform the lab Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas on Tues (5-8-18), and work on the lab results during rotating block.
     
     
    5-3-18   A Day
    We made lots of progress interpreting our lab data and peforming the needed calculations. The Combined Gas Law was introduced, along with Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures...both needed to calculate our lab results. Quiz Monday on The Combined Gas Law and Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures.
     
     
     
    5-2-18    A4 Rotating
    Today we did the Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas Lab, and acquired all the data we need for the calculations to be done next class. If you were absent, you can get very good idea of what we did by watching this Molar Volume of a Gas Video. This is an important lab, and serves as a foundation for the concepts we are studying in this unit on gases and their behavior. 
     
     
     
    4-30-18
    Today we viewed Davis Lecture Video #22 The Gas Laws. During the presentation, I paused the video to elaborate on key points. To help you understand, remember and apply the key points, we answered questions on Davis Video 22 Gas Laws worksheet. We discussed the concept of ideal gases as they relate to the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT). We concluded that gases behave ideally without interferring with each other if they are small in size and are very far apart (low pressure). Then we realized that Boyle's Law, Charles' Law and Gay-Lussac's Law can be merged together to form the Combined Gas Law. Finally, we explored the idea that a mole of any gas under STP conditions occupies the same volume of 22.4 liters! Soon, we will be doing a lab on Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas to prove to ourselves that this is in fact true, to practice using the Combined Gas Law, and learn new lab skills.
     
     
    4-25-18
    A4 is taking their test on acids/bases/pH/titration today. 
    Next class, we stat a new unit on the behavior of gases. 
    For those of you who were absent and missed the fun titration lab, you can get a feel for the precedures and calculations by watching this 8-minute Khan Video on Titration.
     
     
    4-23-18 Monday
    To make things easier (because several of you experienced computer crashes during data acquisition), your "lab report" will consist of the completion of the handout Acid-Base Calculations using Sample Student Data. After you finish, you will complete the Cardulla Video 32 Titrating Acids & Bases worksheet for a quiz grade. This provides closure for our acids/bases/titration unit. Test next class (A Day Wed 4-25-18)(B Day Tues 4-24-18).
    We are now ready to explore the next unit on the Gas Laws: How Pressure, Temperature, and Volume changes affect gases.
     
     
    4-10-18
    We will view Cardulla Lecture Video 32: Titration to help prepare us for the Lab: Acid-Base Titration next class. In that lab, you will be given a sample of HCl with an unknown concentration. Your task will be to titrate it with 0.1 M NaOH solution until you reach the equivalence point. Then you can calculate the molarity of the acid sample. Not only will this lab help demonstrate and solidify acid-base concepts; it will also introduce you to some important new lab skills.
     
     
    4-6-18
    We are now ready to apply our knowledge of ion concentrations and Keq to the self-ionization of water and begin to understand the concept of pH as we prepare for our study of acids and bases.
     
    We have viewed Cardulla Video Lecture 28: Self-Ionization of Water & the Concept of pH. We are also working on the associated WS Video 28 to capture the important points of the video.
     
     
    4-2-18 Monday
    We have started watching a series of videos that delve more deeply into the concept of dynamic chemical equilibrium, so that we may be better-able to understand the nature of the equilibrium constant Keq and, coming up soon, how [H+] and [OH-] influence the degree of acidity or basicity of a solution. Next class, we will discover why determining Keq for reactions is so important, when we view Video #24 Interpreting the Equilibrium Constant.
     
    Video #22 Chemical Equilibrium Basics deals with how forward rates and reverse rates equalize to achieve eqillibrium, and how to interpret a graph of chemical concentration vs. time. The best way to make sure you understand the video is to do the Video # 22 Worksheet. Here are the answers.
    he
     
    Video #23 Introduction to the Equilibrium Constant deals with how to calculate the equilibrium constant Keq from the balanced chemical equation and chemical concentrations given. Mention is also made of what not to include in the Keq calculation. The best way to make sure you understand the video is to do the Video # 23 Worksheet. A4 will finish this WS for Homework, and I will check it next class. Here are the Video #23 WS answers.
     
    I reserve the right to give you some pop quizzes to re-assess your understanding of the concepts you may have gotten wrong but now know how to do. That's what the Test-Check Error Analysis page (at the end of your test) was all about.
     
     
     
     
    3-22-18  B2  Thurs
    We did the lab on Chemical Equilibrium & LeChatelier's Principle. We also finished working on the Redox Part 2 packet, in preparation for the test next class. The answers to the packet will help you fill in any gaps you may have. The test-readiness checklist at the end of the packet will be of great value in keeping you on track for success on the test.
     
    The extra practice workseet with 3 questions is also a great way to prepare Here ae the answers.
     
    If you ae still having a tough time understanding electrochemical cell voltage calculations and using the Nernst Equation, click on the Khan Video link.
     
    If you are way behind and ae still struggling with the basic concepts of electrochemistry, click on Tyler DeWitts video on Introductioin to Electrochemistry. Watch from the beginning up to 10:45 minutes.
     
     
     
    3-20-18  B2 Tuesday
    We missed most of class today because of a student assembly, but after we worked on the 3-question exta-practice worksheet you had for homework. I will officially collect this homework next class.
     
    Also, it's time we did a fun lab. Next class, we will do a lab which physically shows us the LeChatelier effects of adding stess to a chemical system by adding or removing reactant ions in that system and observing expected changes in color.
     
    There is a test-readiness checklist on the last page of your Redox Part 2 Review Packet. Make sure that you are proficient in understanding and applying the concepts listed on that page. There is a test coming up soon on those topics.
     
     
    3-16-18 B2
    I introduced a helpful way to do LeChatelier questions using "situation circles" as a way to compare changing concentrations.
     
    We did the Nernst equation problems 20-23 in the Redox Part 2 Packet.
     
    For extra practice on problems involving Gibb's Free Energy, LeChatelier's Principle, and Nernst Voltage, your homework is to finish the 3 questions on the Extra Practice Sheet we started in class.
     
    Rotating A4 class did Lab 34 Equilibrium & LeChatelier's Principle. Observations were recorded. We will interpret these observations on Monday.
     
     
    3-15-18 A4
    After having reviewed the concepts involving electrochemical voltaic cells, oxidation/reduction, electron transfer, reduction potentials under Standard Conditions (Table 16-4), we are now exploring exactly how much energy is given off in a reaction of known voltage, using the Gibb's Free Energy Equation.
     
    We also explored LeChatelier's Principle in our discussiion of how a chemical system responds to a sudden stress placed on it.
     
    A4 Homework: Redox Review Packet (Part 2): Do questions 17, 18, 19 if you have not already finished them in class. HW check on Monday.
     
    Next class, I will introduce you to the math concept of logarithms and how they are used in applying the Nernst equation to calculate the new voltage output of an electrochemical cell operating under non-standard conditions of various ion concentrations of the aqueous participants.
     
     
    6-18 B2
    Coming back from Feb Vacation, there's a danger that we have begun to forget how to solve stoichiometry problems, so that was today's major lesson topic. After showing you Cardulla Video Lecture 16 on stoichiometry, and commenting on the video essentials, I provided you with a Lecture Outline of his key points and a worksheet with stoichiometry problems that I am counting as a test grade.
     
    Very soon, we will be using what we already learned about electrochemical cells to investigate the important contributions of LeChatelier, Gibbs and Nernst regarding chemical equilibrium and cell voltage changes as the ion concentrations in an electrochemical cell change from their standard condition concentration of 1-M.
     
     
    2-15-18 B2
    During today's lecture on electrochemical cells, we talked about why chemical reactions occur in order to become more stable as a chemical system in terms of lower energy and increased entropy (disorder). We then discussed how electron transfer is the mechanism by which chemical reactions achieve stability and disorder. We then reconsidered our silver lab redox reaction as an exothermic reaction and wondered what would happen if we split the chemical reaction into two beakers, one for the oxidation, and the other for the reduction. In what form could the energy then be given off if the two beakers were connected by a wire?
     
    Table 16-4 was introduced as a way of predicting the voltage produced by an electrochemical cell. If the half-cell equation shows oxidation, reverse the sign given on the Reduction Potentials Table 16-4 (because all the values on that table are for reduction reactions). We reinforced the idea that an electrochemical reaction is more spontaneous with an increase in electric potential difference (cell voltage). So Table 16-4 helps us to determine the spontaneity (likelyhood) of an electrochemical oxidation/reduction reaction.
     
    A worksheet/quiz on electrochemical cells to practice the concepts based on the lecture was provided. Mastery of this worksheet is an excellent preparation for the next test.
     
    Here are a few youtube videos on Electrochemical Cells in case you need to catch up. Pay specific attention to the E cell potential (voltage) calculations and how we know which half-cell undergoes oxidation or reduction:    Tyler DeWitt Voltaic Galvanic Cells 23min        Electrochemistry Crash Course 36 9min
     
     
    2-7-18 B2
    Today we had our test on VSEPR, Stoichiometry, and Oxidation/Reduction. The A4 class has their test on 2-8-18.
     
     
    2-2-18
    Today we viewed the second VSEPR video and worked on the VSEPR Practice Problems worksheet, in preparation for an upcoming test (2-7-18B-day, 2-8-18 A-Day).
    HOMEWORK: Do the best you can to finish the 2nd worksheet...Refer to the 2nd video as needed. We will finish up next class to prepare for the test.
     
    1-31-18
    Today we began a new topic, VSEPR Theory. The 20 min introductory video was shown (also available for your viewing in the Resources Webpage under Related Links. We worked on the 1st video worksheet for the VSEPR: Introduction video.
     
     
    1-5-18 B-Day
    Today I gave a powerpoint lecture on oxidation/reduction reactions, using the labs that we just did as examples. You need to be able to look at a chemical reaction and identify the oxidizing agent/reducing agent in terms what what is happening to the oxidation numbers. (The oxidation number of an ion is its charge.) Then we practiced these concepts in the construction of a poster that shows, microscopically, what is happening (in terms of oxidation & reduction) to the atoms and ions of the silver lab we just did. To help you thoroughly understand these "redox" reactions, we will create another poster showing what happens microscopically with oxidation and reduction of atoms and ions in a silver lab reaction where ALUMINUM is used in place of the Copper as a reducing agent. Refer to the LECTURE Oxidation and Reduction pdf. in the Resources Section for review.
     
     
    10-31-17 Bday   11-1-17 Aday   (<----- Dates Assigned)
    Read Lesson 26. Do questions 1, 2, 3, 6 on page 133
     
     

    10-27-17  B-Day      10-30-17  A-Day     (<----- Dates Assigned)
    Read Lesson 25  Do questions Page 128 # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
     
    Today we explored the mole concept and Avogadro's Number as a way of keeping track of atoms and measuring their amounts. A Worksheet Lesson 10 The Mole was provided to be worked on in class.
     
    Any issues you have with your quarter grade or work that has to be made up has to be taken care of before the end of my extra-help session this Wed 11-1-17.
     
     
     
    10-18-17 A Day (10-19-17 B Day)
    Checked HW L17 & L18
    Reviewed concepts of atomic energy levels and their association with the various colors seen from the spectrum when excited electrons drop back down to their previous levels.  Reviewed Ch 4 Test-Readiness checklist and took practice quiz. Lectured on s, p,d, f suborbitals. Test on the horizon. Last topic of Ch 4 is electron configuration.
    Homework:  Lesson 24 page 121 questions 1, 2, 9, 13
     
     

    10-16-17 A Day
    Read Chapter 4 Lesson 18. Do Page 92 Questions # 3, 4, 5
     
     
     
    10-12-17 A Day
    Read Chapter 4 Lesson 17. Do Page 87 Questions # 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 11
     
     

    10-10-17 A Day  
    Today we finished the Video Lecture Worksheet L 8 on ions and chemical formulas.
     
     
    10-3-17 (A Day)
    Today we explored the 4 different types of nuclear reactions, reactions that actually change elements into other types of elements! (These are not the typical chemical reactions that preserve the identities of the elements.) Radioactive decay can occur as alpha-decay or beta decay. Know these well. Also know the basic difference between fission and fusion. We also discussed Earnest Rutherford's contribution to our understanding of the structure of the atom, based on his famous gold foil experiment. Then we had a practice quiz to prepare us for the test on Chapter 3 next class.
     
     
    9-29-17
    Homework Read Lesson 15 on alpha and beta decay. Do questions 1-6 on page 76.
    Today, we went over the L12 & L13 homework in detail, emphasizing the terms atomic number, atomic mass, average atomic mass, isotopes. We also learned how to calculate the average atomic mass of an element if we are given the percentage relative abundances of the isotopes for that element.
     
     
     
    9-27-17
    Test Ch 1&2. Showed a 5 min video on the Alkali Metals and how extremely reactive they are.
    Homework Read L12 on Atomic Numbers & Atomic Mass. Do P. 60 Questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 8.
    Homework Read L13 on Isotopes. Do P. 64 Questions 1, 2, 3.
     
     

    9-25-17  A4
    Showed a 25-minute video on Families of Elements. Demo on reactivity of sodium metal placed in water (videos found in the Links of the Resources Page). Criss-cross method of writing chemical formulas for compounds. Showed an 18 min video on Ions, Compounds, and Formulas with a worksheet for practice. Practice test Ch 1&2. Test next class Ch 1&2.
     
     
    9-21-17  A4
    Lab Activity: Formulas & Oxidation Numbers (little paper squares of ions helping us to see the ratios of combining ions to write correct chemical formulas)
     

    9-19-17 A4
    Showed a 15-minute video on Mendeleev and his Periodic Table predictions. HO: Test Readiness Checklist for Ch 1&2
     
     
    9-15-17 A4
    Today we reviewed the copper cycle lab and took a closer look at each step, emphasizing that the copper atoms were never lost (law of conservation of mass), and were in fact recovered at the end of the chemical cycle. We also discussed the definitions of ELEMENTS and COMPOUNDS and PHASES. Also, AQUEOUS means dissolved in water. HO: L7 worksheet, L8 Worksheet on the Copper Cycle. Two Videos on the Copper Cycle (found in the Links of the Resources Page).

    HW: Read Lesson 10 and do Example 1 on page 41 a, c, d  Page 47

    You should be familiar with each step of the copper cycle and understand the basics of what happens in each step.
     
     
    9-13-17 A4

    Today, we determined the density data for different amounts of the same substance.
    Homework: (P. 26 Lesson 6 #1-6)






















    5-26-17
    Today we went over the recent test and prepared for the Senior Final Exam during class next week. ALL students (including Juniors) will be taking the Senior Final Exam next week.

    5-19-17
    Today, we finished the lab calculations for Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas and the results averaged to a value of 22.4 L/mole! I handed out the Senior Final Exam Review packet to everyone, because everyone (including Juniors) will be taking the exam on Senior exam day. If you missed class today, the Senior Final Exam Review packet can be found in my Resources webpage.


    5-12-17
    After completing our study of the KMT and gas laws, including Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures, we now have the necessary background to experimentally determine and verify the molar volume of a gas (22.4 L/mole). The lab handout is called Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas and can be found as a pdf in the Resources Section webpage.


    5-11-17
    After deriving the combined gas law and explaining the Original-Final method, these tools were used to solve gas law problems involving changes in V,T,or P. The importance of expressing T in Kelvins was emphasized. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure was introduced as a useful concept in trying to find the pressure of a gas collected by the water displacement method. The molar volume of a gas will be the topic of exploration in our next lab.

    5-9-17
    After reviewing the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory of gases, we discussed how mercury barometers work, the conversion of different units of gas pressure, the special mathematical relationship between Volume and Pressure for a gas, and how to calculate the new volume of a gas if its pressure changes.


    5-3-17
    We discussed why the shapes of molecules are important in determining the solubility and reactivity of molecules. We talked about why the Ammonia Fountain demonstration worked so well in terms of the polar nature of ammonia molecules and water molecules. We explored the expression "Like Dissolves Like". We also talked about atmospheric pressure, its cause and consequence. The study guide for the powerpoint presentation is posted as the pdf Polarity of Molecules and Behavior of Gas Molecules.


    4-25-17  (A Day)
    The 2nd VSEPR Video was shown and a worksheet for it was handed out to be completed for homework. The link to the 2nd VSEPR video (for additional reference and review) is available in the Resources page.


    4-14-17  (A Day)
    Today I collected the VSEPR 1st Video HW after we spent some time in the lab building the molecules on the worksheet with the molecular model kits. TEST on the second Monday after vacation.

    4-12-17 (A Day)
    Today we stated our study of Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR). I showed the 1st video on the basics of the theory, HONC1234, and Lewis-Dot Diagrams. Your homework is to do the worksheet (VSEPR Theory Introduction  1st Video  Worksheet) found in the Resources section. There, you will also find the You-Tube link to the video so that you can watch it again (highly recommended). I will collect the homework next class.


    4-4-17 (A-Day) Make sure you understand your Acids & Bases Packet for your test this Thurs (Wed for B-Day class). If you missed class, you need to take the quiz on Logs, Exponents, Titration (in the Resources webpage) to help you prepare for the test.


    Test Redox Part 2 on 3/16/17 (B-Day), 3/17/17 (A-Day)


    3-13-17 (A Day)
    We explored the usefulness of the Nernst Equation (Redox WS Part 2) and LeChatelier's Principle. We also now understand how to use logarithms when interpreting solution concentrations. Make sure you understand questions 17 & 18 & 19 in the WS Handout Redox Part 2. Test coming up soon.


    3-2-17 (A Day)
    Homework (due next A day) redox Worksheet Part 2 Questions 10-15.


    2-28-17 (A Day)
    Today we realized that the listing of relative strengths of oxidizing agents and reducing agents in Table 17-1 is based on actual voltages (reduction potentials) determined in laboratories. We learned how to calculate from Table 16-4 the exact voltage an electrochemical cell would generate based on these Table 16-4 voltages. My lecture slides for Redox Part 2 is posted in the resources section.

    Then we started working on our WS Packet Redox Review Part 2 (also posted in the resources section). Your homework is to do Questions 1 through 9. These questions are a review of Part 1 material that you should know pretty well by now.

    Quiz next class on the homework material.

    2-13-17
    After having a class to review stoichiometry & redox reactions (Part 1) first thing this week, we will have our test the following class this week. During our review, we will complete the test-readiness worksheet with some practice problems of the type and style you will see on the test. If you miss the review class for any reason, be sure to look and complete the pdf of it in the Resources webpage. You will also find a pdf of my lecture slides in the Resources page. I also posted a pdf of the worksheet which shows the answers (in case you missed the review in class).

    Remember, the test will not be multiple choice...you will be required to write some explanations and do some calculations to demonstrate your solid understanding of Stoichiometry & Redox Reactions Part 1.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    9-6-16

    Today we discussed lab safety, the importance of not bringing food into the classroom, and how to work with a Bunsen burner to bend glass tubing. I also gave you the password to access the Resources for Students & Parents subpage.

     
    9-8-16
    Today , in Lesson 5, we observed the reaction of a penny turning into a silver-colored coin, and then into a "golden-colored" coin. We learned about using INTENSIVE PROPERTIES like density to help identify a pure substance like copper. We came up with a good definition for MATTER. We also learned how to set up a conversion to change pounds to kiligrams.
     
    9-12-16
    Today, we will practice graphing the density data for different amounts of the same substance. We will do the same for two other substances and compare results during a class discussion.
    Homework: (P. 26 #1-6)

    9-14-16
    I checked the homework (P. 26 #1-6). Then we had a quiz on Chapter 1. We talked about the importance of units in deciding if the density equation makes sense. We also discussed the definitions of ELEMENTS and COMPOUNDS and PHASES. Also, AQUEOUS means dissolved in water.
    Homework is to look at the illustration of the copper cycle on page 27 to get an idea of the lab/demo next class.

    9-16-16
    We did the first part of the Copper Cycle Lab (See page 27) and stopped at the filtering step.
    Homework: Read Lesson ( pages 37-40. Do Exercises p. 40 #1, 2, 4, 5

    9-20-16 (A Day)
    We finished the Copper Cycle Lab and discussed the results. I collected the 3 pages of lab information and observations as a report. Then, we went over the homework questions P. 40. Showed a 15 minute video on Mendeleev and his Periodic Table predictions.
    Homework: Read L10 p. 41 --> 47. Do questions p. 48 #1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8

    9-22-16
    Test Chapters 1 & 2 A-1 Wed Sept 28, A-4 Mon Sept 26, B-2 Tues Sept 27. Be sure to use the Test Readiness Checklist in the Resources section to help guide your review and preparation for the test.

    9-26-16 (A Day)  9-27-16 (B Day)
    Read Ch 3 Lesson 11. On page 55, answer questions 1, 2, 3 to focus your understanding of the ATOMIC MODELS reading assignment.
    Read Lesson 12. On page 60, answer questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 to focus your understanding of ATOMIC NUMBERS and ATOMIC MASS.

    9-28-16 (A Day)  9-29-16 (B Day)
    Read Ch 3 Lesson 13. On page 64, answer questions 1, 2, 3 to focus your understanding of the ISOTOPES reading assignment. (We will do the rest of the questions in class together.)
    Read Ch 3 Lesson 14. On page 69, answer questions 1, 2 to focus your understanding of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES reading assignment. (We will do the rest of the questions in class together.)
     
    9-30-16 (A Day)           10-3-16 (B Day)
    Today we observed the chemical reaction of Na with water, producing hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide. We then went over the homework. Then we worked on the video worksheet Lesson 8 on writing chemical formulas.
    Tonight's homework assignment: Read Lesson 15 in Chapter 3 and do the first 6 questions on page 76.

    10-4-16 (A Day)
    Today we finished the Video Lecture Worksheet L 8 on ions and chemical formulas. Then we reviewed Lessons 11and 12. Tonight's HW is to do the front of Worksheet L 13 on Isotopes # 1, 2, 3, 4.

    10-11-16 A Day    10-12-16 B Day
    Read Chapter 4 Lesson 17. Do Page 87 Questions # 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 11.
    Read Lesson 18. Do Page 92 # 3, 4, 5.


    10-13-16  A Day   10-14-16 B Day
    Homework is Read Lesson 19. On page 97, do questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 13
    and read Lesson 20. On page 102, do questions 3, 4, 5, 7
    I will check all A-Day homework on Wed (not Monday). I will check all B-Day homework on Tues.

    10-19-16  A Day    10-20-16  B Day      (<----- Dates Assigned)
    Skip Lesson 21. Read L 22 and do page 111 # 4, 5, 6. Read L 23 and do page 115 # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

    10-24-16 A Day     (<----- Date Assigned)
    Read Lesson 24 on spdf sub-orbitals to prepare you on how to write electron configurations for the elements using the periodic table.

    10-28-16  B-Day      10-31-16  A-Day     (<----- Dates Assigned)
    Read Lesson 25  Do questions Page 128 # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
    Read Lesson 26  Do questions Page 133 # 1, 2, 3, 6, 10

    Any issues you have with your quarter grade or work that has to be made up has to be taken care of before the end of my extra-help session this Wed 11-2-16.

    11-2-16  A Day      11-3-16  B Day C
    Read Lesson 27  Read Example P. 137, Do questions p. 138 # 2, 6
    Read Lesson 28  Do question p.149  #1, 7
    Read Lesson 29  Do questions p. 155 # 1, 5
    Read Lesson 30  Do questions p. 159 # 1, 3

    11-4-16  A Day        11-7-16   B Day     (<----- Dates Assigned)
    Read L 31. Look at Example on p. 163. Do questions p. 164 # 1, 2, 3, 5, 6

    11-8-16  A Day     11-9-16  B Day  
    Read Lesson 32  Do questions # 1, 2, 5  page 168

    11-28-16 A-1 Class
    On the Factor-Label Method of Unit Conversion Worksheet, do problems # 7, 8, 9, 10

    11-30-16
    We are finishing up the Magnesium Oxide Lab (Lab 3-2 Synthesis & Composition of a Compound). Strengthening lab skills and gram-to-mole problem-solving skills as we calculate the chemical formula subscripts for Mg?O?. Next class, I will hand out the Test-Readiness Checklist for Ch 5. All these documents are posted in the Resources Page for this class. You have access to all handout documents to look at if you missed class.

    12-6-16
    We used the mole-ratio  concepts of Lab 3-2 and applied them in the Synthesis of a Chemical Compound quiz. We now know how to use the experimental masses of the components of a compound to determine their mole ratios, and therefore the formula of the compound. We also know how to use the criss-cross method to verify that formula.

    Test Next class on Ch 5 and mole problems, with a sprinkle of previous topics.

    1-13-17
    We did another lab (Lab 4-4) that helps us practice new lab skills and stoichiometry. This lab was a single-displacement reaction that resulted in the creation of silver metal!

    We have a test mostly on stoichiometry on Tues 1-18-17 B-Day/Wed 1-19-17 A-Day. Gather all of your labs and study them for topics like percent composition, percent yield, and stoichiometry using balanced chemical equations. Since the test will require mostly critical-thinking skills, rather than memory, you are allowed to use your labs as a reference during the test. You are also allowed to use your sheet of ion charges and the periodic table. All of these reference materials are also found in the Chemistry Resources subpage on this website. Make sure you bring your calculator to class for the test! The test will consist of around ten questions that all require a written/calculated response...mostly based on the lab we just did (Lab 4-4 Silver Lab).

    If you haven't yet started to review your notes for the mid-year exam, now is the time to make sure you have not forgotten what you have already learned!

    1-31-17 A-Day
    Today we will go over the correct responses to the Mid-Year Exam to make sure you understand the concepts behind any questions you missed. Time-permitting, I will also introduce you to Oxidation-Reduction Reactions with a PowerPoint presentation. (The Lecture notes are already posted as a pdf file in the Resources webpage.) We will re-examine the Magnesium Lab (3-2 Synthesis of a Compound) and silver lab ( 4-4 Mole Relationships in a Chemical Reaction) to find out why these reactions occurred in the context of Oxidation-Reduction of the atoms and ions involved.